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A Origem do Tai Chi Chuan

O Tai Chi Chuan recebeu contribuições de diferentes sistemas de movimentos associados a saúde e filosofia:

No período dos Três Reinos (220 a 265 D.C) existiu um médico chamado Hua-tu`o, que criou um sistema de movimentos conhecido como Wu-Chi Chi Hsi. Este sistema foi desenvolvido através da observação dos movimentos de cinco animais: tigre, cervo, urso, macaco e garça. Ele acreditava que o corpo necessitava ser regularmente exercitado para ajudar na digestão e circulação sangüínea, e só assim poderia desfrutar de uma vida longa e saudável. Provavelmente este sistema é um dos que influenciaram no desenvolvimento do Tai Chi que conhecemos atualmente.

No século VI, Bodihdharma, conhecido na China como Ta Mo, chegou ao mosteiro Shaolin e viu que os monges apresentavam condições físicas ruins, isso devido aos longos períodos dedicados à meditação e ao pouco movimento realizado diariamente. Em razão disto foi desenvolvido um sistema de exercícios conhecido como Wai Chia (Escola Externa), que por sua vez deu origem a todas as escolas de Kung-fu e outras formas de artes marciais ditas externas. Em contraste, o Nei Chia (Escola Interna), o qual o Tai Chi é membro, refere-se a um sistema mais leve, que desenvolve músculos, ligamentos e tendões que não controlamos conscientemente. É o refinamento de habilidades básicas do sistema Wai Chia e o desenvolvimento de harmonia entre mente e corpo.

No século VIII (Dinastia Tang), foi desenvolvida uma seqüência de 37 posturas. Algumas destas posturas têm nomes muito semelhantes às atuais posturas do Tai Chi Chuan. Naturalmente muitas outras formas foram desenvolvidas neste período.

Chang San-Feng, monge do mosteiro Wutang, que é considerado por muitos como o patriarca do Tai Chi, viveu no período da Dinastia Song (961-1279). Foi creditado a ele a criação das “Treze Posturas” fundamentais do Tai Chi, que corresponde aos oito trigramas básicos do I Ching e aos cinco elementos ( terra, água, fogo metal e madeira ). Esses movimentos foram criados baseados no conceito do “yin” e do “yang“, princípios fundamentais do Taoísmo, da Filosofia Taoísta.

As teorias, escritas e práticas de Chang San-Feng foram posteriormente elaboradas por Wang Chung-Yueh e seu aluno Chiang Fa. Wang aparentemente usou as Treze Posturas de Chang San-Feng e as encadeou numa seqüência contínua, que se assemelha às seqüências de Tai Chi praticadas atualmente. Chiang Fa ensinou Tai Chi para aldeões de um Vilarejo de província de Henan, e então foi criada a primeira escola de Tai Chi Chuan (Escola do Norte). Quase todos os alunos desta escola eram da família Chen.

Alguns pesquisadores acreditam que antes de Chiang Fa chegar ao vilarejo, ele teria descoberto membros da família Chen praticando o Tai Chi. Outros acreditam que a família Chen praticava uma outra arte marcial distinta, que teria influenciado o modo de Chiang Fa ensinar o Tai Chi.

Chen Chou-t’ung, outro aluno de Wang Chung-yueh, tinha uma certa rivalidade com Chiang Fa. Ele fundou uma escola conhecida com Escola do Sul. Este interessante ramo do Tai Chi posteriormente desapareceu, ao contrário da Escola do Norte de Chiang Fa, que sobreviveu até os dias atuais. A partir da família Chen, e após anos de disseminação, muitos estilos de Tai Chi Chuan foram criados, onde atualmente se destacam cinco estilos: Estilo Chen, estilo Yang, estilo Wu, estilo Wu Yuxiang e estilo Sun.

Outros estudiosos acreditam que o Tai Chi foi criado por Han Gongyue e Cheng Lingxi no período da Dinastia Liang (502-557). Outros dizem que o Tai Chi teria sido criado por Xu Xuanping ou Li Daozi na Dinastia Tang (618-907).

Márcio Lacerda

Yang Cheng Fu Center Brasil-Rio de Janeiro

Curso de Formação,Aulas regulares, particulares:

marciolacerda@taichichuanbrasil.com.br

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